Thursday, November 28, 2013

Century-Old Photos Revealed by Oregon State University, Part 1.
The Collection Includes an Interesting Historical Commentary

Rachel's Tomb (circa 1910) Note the camels and carriages. (Oregon State University Archives)

Oregon State University has an unusual collection of 100+ year old photographs of Palestine --  not necessarily unusual because of the photographs, which are exceptional, but also because of the historic narration provided to most of the pictures.


Tiberias (circa 1910, Oregon State University Archives)
The "historic lecture booklet" referenced in many of the captions, explains Trevor Sandgathe, the Public Services Coordinator of OSU's Special Collections & Archives Research Center, "is a 60-page document containing captions for each of the images in this particular set of lantern slides.  The booklet was for internal use and therefore unpublished."

We provide here a first set of OSU's pictures and the original captions (in blue).

"Tiberias ... is on the western shore of the lake of Galilee about seven miles from its southern end. The lake lies 627 feet below the level of the Mediterranean; the city is on a plain a few feet above the lake.
After the destruction of Jerusalem, Tiberias became the seat of many Jewish schools. Here the Mishna was complied [sic] and published about A.D. 220, and the Palestinian Talmud about 420. Here the vowel points were added to the Hebrew Bible about 600 A.D. Of its present population of 4,000 two-thirds are Jews."

The Jews' Wailing Place- Outer Wall of Temple  (circa 1910,
Oregon State University Archives)
"Leaving the temple area by the Cotton Gate, a turn to the left will bring one to the wailing place of the Jews which is a portion of the western wall of the temple area.
The figures leaning against the weather-beaten wall, shedding tears, present a touching scene. Some professionals come to mourn for others, whose business detains them, but one old woman was actually bathing the walls and flagstones below with hot tears. On a Friday afternoon or a Saturday morning, great throngs of Jews may be seen here all unconscious of the presence and clicking of cameras. This is as close to the temple area as the Jews ever go, for none of them wish to commit the enormous sin of treading upon the Holy of Hollies. As nearly as the Middle Ages, probably, the Jews came hither to wail. They are free to do so now, but in ages past they had to pay large sums for this privilege."

Jaffa Gate (prior to 1908 when a clock tower was built at the gate, post-1898
when the wall was breached to build this road  (circa 1910,
 Oregon State University Archives)  More pictures of Jaffa Gate here

"The Jaffa gate is the only gate on the western side of Jerusalem. It is so called because through it passes the road and the traffic to and from Jaffa.
 It is one of eight gates in the city wall, of which one, the golden Gate, had long been walled up. the Jaffa gate is called by the Moslem, Bab el-Khalil, that is Gate of the Friend (of God) - Abraham, because from this gate is the road to Hebron where Abraham lived.
The scene is liveliest on Sunday, and on Friday --- the holy day of the Mohammedans. Then the Jaffa road appears as the principal promenade of the natives." 





 

Responsible Archivists Preserve Their Photographic Treasures

 
 
Abraham's Well, Beer Sheba  (circa 1910, Oregon State University Archives)
The wells of Beer Sheba were a strategic location during the battles of
World War I. Read more here
"Beer-Sheba (the wall [sic] of seven) is the name of one of the oldest towns in Palestine. It is the most southern city of Palestine. Here are found seven wells, two large ones and five smaller ones called Abraham's wells.

Perhaps no other name is better known in Palestine than is Beer-Sheba. It was first assigned to Judah and afterwards to Simeon (Josh. 15:28, 19;2) On the return from Exile, Beer-Sheba was again peopled by Jews. In Roman times Beer-Sheba was a very large village with a garrison. It was the seat of a bishopric in the early Christian times before the country was conquered by the Muslims."




Next: Oregon State University Collection, Part 2

Wednesday, November 27, 2013

When Responsible Archivists Preserve Their Photographic Treasures

Prayers at the Western Wall. What's unusual about
the photo?
Research by this publication indicates that in recent years libraries and archives around the world have begun to digitize the vintage photographs stored in their files and basements for many decades. 

Besides the vast Library of Congress digitized collection that we have extensively focused on, Israel Daily Picture has also published historic digitized photos from -
  • New York Public Library
  • Harvard Library
  • Emory University Library
  • Dundee (Scotland) Medical School Archives
  • Private family collections, including the "Cigarbox Collection,"
  • Oregon State University
  • Getty Collection
  • Chatham University Archives
  • Palestine Exploration Fund
 
A Jerusalem synagogue. What was its fate?
In future weeks we will present more essays and incredible photographs from the collections of a European church and two U.S. university archives. We are in the process of securing permission from the archivists and librarians before we publish them, and we are searching for more such collections.

We thank the librarians and archivists who have already digitized their collections and granted us permission to post their photographs.  As our million visitors can testify, the photographs will be viewed around the world.

We provide credits and links in all future postings.  For now, we present two "coming attraction" teasers. 

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Sunday, November 24, 2013

The Chatham Library Photo Treasures Part 3,
Jerusalem, Holy to All Religions.
Responsible Archivists Are Digitizing their Vintage Pictures


Beneath Robinson's arch on the western wall of the Temple Mt. complex  (Chatham University Archives, circa 1890)

The Chatham Library archives contains 110 photos of the Holy Land, but we have focused on the photos of Jerusalem.  We present today the third part of our series. 

Reconstruction model of the Arch
(Wikimedia Commons)

We express our admiration and gratitude to the archivists at Chatham University for digitizing these hand-colored slides dating back to about 1890.

The picture of Robinson's Arch published above is the base of a massive arch built by King Herod.  Archaeologists believe it was the anchor for a large bridge or staircase from the top of the Temple Mount.




Map of Jerusalem (Chatham University Archives, circa 1895). Note the "Railroad
Sta" on the bottom left. The Jerusalem Train Station was completed in 1892.
The Chatham collection also contains a map of Jerusalem.

Note that few buildings were to be found outside of the Old City walls.

The Jerusalem Railroad station was completed in 1892, and can be located at the bottom left of the map.  The map, therefore, was printed after 1892.




















The reference to the train station can also date the following picture's caption.  The photograph was taken near the location of the Mt Zion Hotel of today, itself the refurbished St. John's Eye Hospital established in 1882.

"Jerusalem - Road to the Station." The road starts at the Jaffa Gate and passes over the Hinom Valley
and Sultan's Pool  (Chatham University Archives, circa 1895)

The Mosque of Omar (Chatham University Archives, circa 1890).  The second mosque on the Temple Mount,
the al-Aqsa Mosque, is holier to Muslims than the Mosque of Omar, but 19th and early 20th century photographers
focused much more on "the Dome of the Rock" Mosque of Omar


Inside the Dome of the Rock, Mosque of Omar (Chatham University Archives, circa 1890). The photo
appears to be a colorization of a photo by Maison Bonfils. According to Jewish tradition, the rock is the
foundation stone of the Jewish Temples. See more here.

Church of the Holy Sepulcher (Chatham University Archives, circa 1890)

Amidst the ancient Jewish graves are the tombs of "Absalom (from left to right), Zacharias
 and James," in the Kidron Valley (Chatham University Archives, circa 1890)

Friday, November 22, 2013

Yitzchak "Buji" Herzog, New Leader of Israel's Labor Party, Has a Rich Family History

Rabbi Isaac Herzog addressing a graduation ceremony at a flying school
at Lydda (Lod) airport in 1939 (Library of Congress)
The Labor Party of Israel elected its new leader yesterday, MK Yitzchak "Buji" Herzog, a veteran Israeli politician. 

Many observers of Israeli politics know that he is the son of the late President of Israel, Chaim Herzog, and Aura Herzog, the sister of Suzy, Abba Eban's widow.

Buji Herzog's lineage is also documented in these pictures from the Library of Congress' archives.  His grandfather, Rabbi Isaac Herzog, was the Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi of Ireland and Palestine (and after 1948, the Chief Rabbi of Israel).  Rabbi Herzog succeeded Rabbi Avraham I. Kook. Today's new Labor Party leader was born a year after grandfather died and was given his name.

Rabbanit Herzog in the dark suit, between Rachel Yanait Ben-Zvi (r)
and Ita Yellin (Library of Congress, 1939)
MK Herzog's grandmother, Sarah Herzog, "The Rabbanit," is pictured here leading a 1939 women's demonstration against the British "White Paper" which severely restricted Jewish immigration into Palestine, thereby slamming the door to Jews attempting to leave burning Europe.  She (in the dark suite) is pictured with other "leading ladies" of the Jewish "Yishuv," Rachel Yanait Ben-Zvi (right) and Ita Yellin.  Rachel was married to Yitzchak Ben-Zvi, Israel's second president.  Ita was married to Prof. David Yellin, a leading educator.


See an earlier posting on "The Rabbanit's" 1939 demonstration here.

Thursday, November 21, 2013

The Chatham Library Photo Treasures Part 2,
the Walls & Gates of Jerusalem

Responsible Archivists Are Digitizing their Vintage Pictures

Panorama of Jerusalem and the walls of the city. Note how few buildings were outside the walls of the Old City.
 (Chatham University Archives, circa 1890) Click on pictures to enlarge


The Chatham University is not the only library to digitize their vintage pictures from Palestine.  In recent weeks we have discovered newly-scanned collections at several more libraries and even a European church.  We will present the collections in future postings.

The Chatham University Archives placed all 110 colored slides from the"Holy Land Lantern Slides"online, and in this posting we present a selection to focus on the collection's pictures of Jerusalem's walls and gates.  


Another Jerusalem Panorama taken from Mt Scopus (Chatham University Archives, circa 1890)

Jaffa Gate (Chatham University Archives circa 1890)

This picture of Jaffa Gate has been featured in previous postings when we found it in other collections

We also determined that the photo was taken prior to 1898 because of a glimpse of the moat wall on the right side of the picture.

The wall was torn down and the moat filled in so that the Germany emperor's carriage could enter.





Damascus Gate   (Chatham University Archives)
View other historical (black and white) pictures of the Damascus Gate at our previous posting.

There are no pictures of the Zion, Dung and Herod Gates of the Old City. The "New Gate" of the Old City, an entrance built for access into the Christian Quarter, was constructed in 1889, after the photographs were taken.

Lions Gate, also known as St. Stephen's Gate (Chatham University Archives)
The "lions" carved on both sides of the gate are actually panthers, the symbol of the Mamluk Sultan Baybars (1223-1277). The panthers were believed to have been part of a Mamluki structure and placed at the gate by Suleiman to commemorate the Ottoman victory over the Mamluks in 1517.  View an earlier posting on Lions Gate here


The sealed Sha'ar Harachamim, or the Golden Gate, taken from Gethsemane Garden  (Chatham University Archives)
See our previous feature on Sha'ar Harachamim and the graves beneath it here.

Click on photos to enlarge.  Click on the caption to view the original picture.

Next: Inside Jerusalem

Wednesday, November 20, 2013

Another Photographic Treasure Trove Discovered: 120-Year-Old Colored Slides from Chatham University, Part 1

The Western Wall in Jerusalem (hand-colored, Chatham University Archives, circa 1890)  The photo's
caption reads "Jesus' Waiting Place." A case of bad handwriting? Other photographers of the time captioned
their pictures, "Jews' Wailing Place."

In the need for library and archival preservation, modern technology is certainly a friend of antiquity.  Vintage photographs, some stored for over a century in old libraries, are now being digitized and often posted Online.  Such is the case with this treasure of "Holy Land Lantern Slides" we found in Chatham University's archives.

Chatham University, a 150-year-old women's undergraduate school in Pittsburgh, digitized their slides in 2009.  According to Rachel M. Grove Rohrbaugh, the school's archivist and public service librarian, "most of the slides roughly date to circa 1880-1900.  We don’t have specific information on the photographer(s) or how they were used here at Chatham, but they were likely used for instruction in world history or cultural studies."


View of Hinom Valley in Jerusalem (Chatham University Archives, circa 1880). The photo, probably taken from
near the Jaffa Gate, shows the Montefiore windmill, built in 1858, and the Mishkenot Sha'anaim homes beneath it.
Are the blades of the windmill blurry because they were moving? That could provide a date for the photo: The
 mill stopped turning in 1876.

Kerosene lanterns designed to
project slides  (YouTube)
We thank Chatham University Library for permission to publish these well-preserved hand-painted lantern slides.  

In the 1880s, before movies or electricity, pictures such as these were projected in front of classes or audiences using a kerosene-lit lamp fitted with special lenses.

The slides were produced by optical manufacturers who sold the lanterns. The makers of the Chatham slides were identified by Chatham's archivist as T.H McAllister Co. and Williams, Brown, and Earle, of New York and Philadelphia respectively. 


Joseph's Tomb in Nablus (Shchem) (Chatham University Archives, circa 1880)

Inside the Jaffa Gate of the Old City of Jerusalem. The moat on the right of the picture indicates the picture was
taken prior to the 1898 arrival of the German emperor. when the moat was filled in.  What does the large sign
 at the end of the road read?  (Chatham University Archives)



An enlargement of the picture shows a sign, "Mission to the Jews," inside the Jaffa Gate of the Old City of Jerusalem.

German, Anglican, and Scottish Protestant church missionaries were very active in the Holy Land in the late 19th century.

At the time, this intersection of the Old City was probably one of the busiest ones in Jerusalem.

Click on the pictures to enlarge.
Click on the captions to view the originals.


Next: Part 2 of the Chatham Collection



Monday, November 18, 2013

New Series and Site Launch -- The Jews of Palestine 1850-1948

E-zine #1 of the "Jews of Palestine" series  

Editor's note: Israel Daily Picture now contains more than one thousand pictures and 350 photo essays on the Holy Land.  We will continue to add more vintage photographs as more and more historic pictures are digitalized in the libraries and archives around the world. 

We present today an "E-zine" experiment, an electronic magazine "Jews of Palestine" in which we group the publication around specific topics.

Today's topic focuses on America's role in the life of the Jews of Palestine.  Future E-zines will focus on World War I in Palestine, the synagogues of Jerusalem, Yemenite immigrants of the 19th century, the Gates of Jerusalem, Jewish holidays and festivals, Jewish industry, the building of the Jewish state, and more.  The series will show the Jewish life in Eretz Yisrael years before Theodore Herzl's Zionist manifesto and well before the founding of the State of Israel.

Here is our first edition.  Please let us know your opinion in the comment section below.

America and Palestine's Jews

Photographic History of American Involvement in the Holy Land 1850-1948

In 1988, John Barnier visited a garage sale in St. Paul, Minnesota.  There he found and purchased eight boxes of old photographic glass plates.  Fortunately, Barnier is an expert in the history of photographic printing.

He had little idea that he had uncovered a historic treasure. Later, he viewed the plates and saw that they included old pictures of Jerusalem.  He contacted the Harvard Semitic Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts, known for its large collection of old photographs from the Middle East.

On some of the plates they found the initials MJD. Until then the name Mendel Diness was barely known by scholars.  It was assumed that with the exception of one or two photos his collection was lost. Click to see more


 

The history of the Jewish Legion that fought in Palestine in World War I is relatively unknown.

Many of the soldiers were recruited from the ranks of the disbanded Zion Mule Corps, Palestinian Jews exiled by the Turks in April 1917 who were recruited in Egypt, or from Diaspora Jewry recruited in Canada and the United States.

As many as 500 Jewish Legion soldiers came from North America; many of them were originally from Poland or Russia. One Legionnaire was Pvt. Click to see more


Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook (1865-1935) was a renowned Talmud scholar, Kabbalist and philosopher.  He is considered today as the spiritual father of religious Zionism, breaking away from his ultra-Orthodox colleagues who were often opposed to the largely secular Zionist movement. Born in what is today Latvia, Rabbi Kook moved to Palestine in 1904 to take the post of the Chief Rabbi of  Click to read more

 Click on pictures to enlarge


Are these Photographs of Mark Twain's Companions from The Innocents Abroad? 
"The Pilgrims and the Sinners" in the Holy Land

Mark Twain was a relatively unknown writer in 1867 when he visited Palestine in the company of 64 "pilgrims and sinners" and wrote these words:

Palestine sits in sackcloth and ashes. Over it broods the spell of a curse that has withered its fields and fettered its energies.... Click to read more

 

 



The founders of the American Colony in Jerusalem in  1881 were proud of their American roots. The group of utopian, millennialist Christians were later joined by Swedish-American and Swedish believers. 

The American Colony set up clinics, orphanages, cottage industries and soup kitchens for the poor of Jerusalem, earning favor with the Turkish rulers of Palestine. Click to read more





    


The Library of Congress archives includes  two photographs of a steam roller on the streets of Jerusalem.
No explanation was given for the American flag; nor was a definitive date provided. Click to read more

 







  

Click picture to enlarge
During the first years of the 20th Century the Jewish population of Eretz Yisrael -- Palestine -- suffered terribly. A massive plague of locusts, famine and disease hit the community hard.  Ottoman officials harassed, tortured, imprisoned and expelled Jews, especially "Zionist" activists.

An account of life in Palestine during the first world war was presented to the World Zionist Congress in 1921 by the London Zionist  Click to read more




 



April 1936 was the start of a vicious anti-Semitic and violent "Arab Revolt" in Palestine that would last through 1939.

The murderous attacks against Jews, Jewish communities and Jewish property were widespread throughout Palestine.  British government offices, banks and railroads were also attacked.

Coming so soon after the 1929 massacres of Jews in Palestine and under the looming shadow of the Nazi threat, the attacks against Palestine's Jews alarmed friends of the Zionist Click to read more





Abraham Lincoln "said he wanted to visit the Holy Land and see those places hallowed by the footprints of the Saviour. He was saying there was no city he so much desired to see as Jerusalem," Mary Todd Lincoln told the Springfield, Ill. pastor who presided at Abraham Lincoln's funeral.  She explained that the 16th president told her of his desire before he was fatally shot in Ford's Theater on April 14, 1865.

Truth or Mary Todd Lincoln's imagination?  We can only Click to read more




Click to see Jews of Palestine

Thursday, November 14, 2013

The Porat Yosef Yeshiva in Jerusalem's Old City,
the Leading Sephardic Seminary Was Destroyed and Rebuilt

The original caption read: "Clearing of lower end of Tyropean Valley, near Dung Gate (1935)." The photo shows the
Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem's Old City before its destruction in 1948. The Porat Yosef Yeshiva is in the
center of the picture with the white dome. Today this area is the entrance way to the Western Wall plaza.
(Library of Congress, circa 1935, captions added by Israel Daily Picture)
 
A puzzling picture from the Library of Congress collection showing
the "Temple area. Jerusalem. The Dome of the Rock and the western
Temple wall." Presumably the wide white lines are photographic
editor's tape. At the corner made by the tape is the Porat Yosef dome. The
Library of Congress dates the picture "between 1898 and 1946," but
Porat Yosef was not built until 1923. 1946 is the year the American
Colony Photographic Department closed.
Several ultra-Orthodox rabbinical seminaries in Israel can claim to be the leading Ashkenazic yeshiva -- the massive Mir Yeshiva in Jerusalem with its 6,000 students, Ponevezh Yeshiva in B'nai Brak, or the Hevron Yeshiva in Jerusalem, once the famous Slabodka seminary in Europe which relocated to Hebron until the 1929 massacre of Jews there. 

But there are few challengers in the haredi Sephardic community to the pre-eminence of the Porat Yosef Yeshiva in Jerusalem.  The site for the seminary was purchased 100 years ago; the cornerstone was laid in 1914, and the building was inaugurated in 1923.  The building contained study halls, a synagogue, classrooms and apartments.

It was all destroyed by the Jordanian army in 1948, along with all of the synagogues and homes in Jewish Quarter.  The photos of the war in the Old City and the destruction of the Jewish Quarter were taken by Life Magazine's John Phillips. 

After the 1967 war, the Porat Yosef seminary was rebuilt and overlooks the Western Wall Plaza.

The destruction of Porat Yosef Yeshiva (John Phillips, Life Magazine 1948)

Tuesday, November 12, 2013

The Lepers of Jerusalem
Caution: Some Readers May Find the Pictures Troubling

Lepers, presumably in Jerusalem, (Library of Congress, circa 1900)
Book of Kings II, Chapter 7: ... Now there were four leprous men at the entrance of the gate [of besieged Samaria]; and they said one to another: 'Why sit we here until we die? ... If we will enter into the city, then the famine is in the city, and we shall die there; and if we sit still here, we die also. Now therefore come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans...And they rose up in the twilight, to go unto the camp of the Arameans; and when they came to the outermost part of the camp of the Arameans, behold, there was no man there."

For thousands of years the scourge of leprosy has struck fear among humanity.  In the Bible it was considered a severe punishment. Leprosy was called a "living death," and its victims were often exiled from cities or imprisoned in leper colonies.

Group of leper women (circa 1900)
In the 19th century, Christian missionaries, well-versed in the Bible, saw lepers in the Holy Land as candidates for their holy mission, and photographers, perhaps seeing a commercial demand, viewed the lepers through the lenses of their cameras. The pictures here were taken by the photographers of the American Colony.

Today, scientists know that leprosy is caused by a bacteria and is rarely contagious, particularly if the patient is receiving treatment. It is transmitted by the transfer of body fluids and is treatable with antibiotics. While the disease has been "beaten back," it still exists in developing countries. 

In 1887, Hansen’s Hospital, known as the “Lepers Home," was built on the then-remote outskirts of Jerusalem, according to writer Ruth Wexler.  It was designed by the German architect Conrad Schick and operated by the Moravian Church.

"Hansen Hospital, an architectural treasure, is now situated in the midst of an affluent neighborhood," Wexler wrote. "During the 122 years of its existence around 600 people spent their lives within its walls. In the year 2000, the last leprosy in-patients moved out."

 A group of leper men (circa 1900)


Hansen's Hospital, across from the Jerusalem Theater.
(Judy Lash Balint, 2005)
 
Despite medical advances, the leprosy stigma divided patients from society.  Going against the norm was Rabbi Aryeh Levin (1885-1969), a  revered Jerusalem rabbi.

"He was a frequent visitor at hospitals for lepers," Simcha Raz wrote in A Tzaddik in Our Time. "Reb Aryeh began this holy practice after he had found a woman weeping bitterly by the Western Wall. Reb Aryeh asked her, 'what made her cry so intensely.' She told him that her child had no cure, and was locked up in the leper hospital in Jerusalem. He immediately decided to visit the young child, and when he arrived all the patients burst into tears. It had been years since they had the privilege to see any visitor from the outside world."

Today, the hospital is undergoing renovation to become a cultural center and gallery for arts, media, design and technology.

David the King of Israel Lives On
-- Updated

1857 picture, original caption: "The Tomb of David. This building was formerly a Christian Church; it is of great
antiquity, and much venerated by the Muslims, who allow no Christian to enter the Tomb. There is also
in the building a room which is said to be that in which [Jesus' Last] Supper was instituted. (Robertson
Beato & Co photographers, Palestine Exploration Fund)
King David's Tomb (circa 1900). The original caption
said it was a "Tabernacle."
"Modernity meets antiquity" explains the discovery of most of the photographs that appear in www.IsraelDailyPicture.com. As more and more archives and libraries digitalize the photographs in their collections, they put them online.  The pictures presented on this site come from the Library of Congress, the Palestine Exploration Fund, Emory University, the Central Zionist Archives, New York Public Library, and even the archives at the medical school of the University of Dundee, Scotland.


Tomb exterior (circa 1900)
The 156-year-old photo above predates those we presented two years ago from the Library of Congress' collection.  We reproduce that feature below and add a comment on the rediscovered "holiness" of the site.

A thousand-year-old Jewish tradition believes that King David is buried in a tomb on Mt. Zion. And that is one of the reasons the belief is questioned by some Bible scholars. 

The Tomb interior (circa 1900)
The Bible (Kings I, 2:10) states that David and his descendants were buried in the City of David, generally believed to be south of the Temple Mount, not on Mt. Zion to the West. 

The Jewish tradition has taken hold over the last millennium, and the tomb is revered by many Jews, as evident in the Library of Congress' 100 year old picture. 

King David's Tomb was particularly important from 1948 until 1967 when the Western Wall, the Cave of the Patriarchs and Rachel's Tomb were all under Jordanian control and forbidden to Jews.  The Mt. Zion site was the closest Jews could get to the Western Wall.

Adjacent to the Hagia Sion Abbey
Chamber of the Last Supper (circa 1900)
(formerly the Dormition Abbey), the tomb is located beneath the room where, according to Christian belief, Jesus conducted his Last Supper.

Comment from Reader "Lynne": The outcome of Israel's [1948] War of Independence was the main catalyst for the creation of a new map of Jewish pilgrimage sites. Places of only secondary importance before the war [such as King David's Tomb] now turned into central centers due to the realization of the importance of them. Previously, there was so much emphasis placed upon the re-establishment of the state of Israel (after having not been a nation for 2,000 years) and the re-establishment of the habitability of the land that the task of preserving the Biblical holy sites had not been a priority. Several categories of the sacred sites are discussed herein: sites in the possession of Jews before the 1948 war that were developed during the 1950s as central centers; sacred sites stolen by Muslims prior to the war, which were rightfully converted back into Jewish sacred sites during the 1950s; and new Jewish pilgrimage sites re-established after the establishment of the State of Israel. The research demonstrates how various official, semi-official, and popular powers took part in the re-establishing of the Jewish sacred space. [Source: Article by Doron Bar, Reconstructing the Past: The Creation of Jewish Sacred Space in the State of Israel, 1948–1967, Israel Studies - Volume 13, Number 3, Fall 2008, pp. 1-21]